DEJ VOL. 5, NO. 1 (2016)

LCCB Development Education Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

Editorial Board

Editorial Board

Vol. 5 No. 1 June 2016

ISSN 2243-9609

Editor in Chief

Purita P. Bilbao, PhD,West Visayas State University

Members of the Board

  • Tatik Suryani, PhD, STIE Perbanas Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Rhoda B. Galangco, PhD, University of Baguio
  • Genaro V. Japos, PhD, IAMURE Multidisciplinary Research
  • Carmen C. Menes, La Consolacion College Bacolod, Philippines
  • Randdie P. Cuelo, La Consolacion College Bacolod
  • Dr. Theresa Jennifer H. Mendoza, La Consolacion College Bacolod, Philippines
  • Ms. Leane Adele L. Linaugo, La Consolacion College Bacolod, Philippines

Chief Executive Officer

Sister Gavina F. Barrera, PhD, OSA

Managing Editor

Joji D. Linaugo

Finance Manager

Sister Jeniffer de la Cruz, OSA

Copy Editor

Ismael A. Haguisan III

Quality Assurance Specialist

Alma P. Dales


          The Development Education Journal (DEJ) of Multidisciplinary Research is a peer-reviewed journal which aims to publish for widespread dissemination new discoveries in the various disciplines of knowledge.  DEJ provides a venue for scholars to publish their research findings for advocacy and utilization.

          The journal publishes articles that present research findings on various fields which can contribute to human wellbeing and development.

Table of Contents

Guide for Authors


  Authors’ Responsibilities.   Authors, and not DEJ, are responsible for the content of their papers, for the accuracy of quotations and their correct attribution, for the legal right to publish any material submitted and the appropriate handling issues of co-authorship and for submitting their manuscripts in proper form for publication.  Authors must submit written permission from anyone whose unpublished works are cited or used.  A manuscript submitted to DEJ must not be under consideration by any other journal or publication medium at the same time, or have been published elsewhere.  After a manuscript has been accepted, and before it is published, the authors or authors (in cases where papers are coauthored or jointly authored) will be asked to sign copyright-release forms, which must be received before actual publication takes place.  Final submission of a manuscript automatically grants DEJ the right to use any figure (or picture) therein on the cover of the journal in which it appears.  

Manuscript Preparation

  1. Organize the paper following these major headings: Title, Author(s) and email address(es), Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods for experimental study or Methodology for non-experimental study, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgment, and Literature Cited. The Literature Cited should substantially consist of articles published in current content-covered or peer-reviewed journals.
  2. Type the entire manuscript double-spaced on a short white bond paper (8.5 x 11 in) on one side only with 2.5 cm margins all around using Arial font size of 12.  References, Acknowledgments, Table Titles, and Figure Legends should be typed double-spaced or numbered consecutively on all pages including title page, figures, and tables.
  3. Leave two spaces before and after the major headings and two spaces before and after the sub-headings. Do not use footnotes rather use endnotes if required by the discipline.
  4. Spell out acronyms or unfamiliar abbreviations when these are mentioned for the first time in the text.
  5. Write the scientific names of species completely with author(s) when it is first mentioned in the text and without the author in succeeding references. Scientific names should be written in italics.
  6. Do not spell out numbers unless they are used to start a sentence.
  7. Use the metric system only or the International System of Units. Use abbreviations of units only beside numerals (e.g. 6 m); otherwise, spell out the units (e.g. kilometers from here). Do not use plural forms or periods for abbreviations of units. Use the bar for compound units (e.g. 1 kg/ha/yr). Place a zero before the decimal in numbers less than 1 (e.g. 0.25)
  8. When preparing Tables and Figures, consider the journal’s printed page of 5.75 in x 8.5 in and the reduction that will be necessary. Titles of Tables and Captions of Figures should be as short as possible and understandable without referring to the text. Captions of Figures should be typed double-spaced on a separate sheet. Figures should consist only of simple line drawings, computer-generated graphics or good quality black and white photographs. Photographs should be original figures that are not electronically enhanced and submitted in a jpeg or png file. The label of Figures should be of such a size so that these are still legible even after reducing the size by as much as 50%. Use Adobe Photoshop CS, Adobe Indesign CS and or PDF computer-generated graphics preferably.
  9. Cite references in the text as (author, year). Writing of et al. in the list of references/ literature cited is discouraged, but instead, all the names of authors are mentioned; references in press as (author, in press) and unpublished reference as (author, unpubl. data or author, pers. comm.). If two or more references are cited, arrange them by year (from the most recent to the oldest).
  10. The manuscript should be as concise as the subject and research method permit, generally not to exceed 4,000 words, single-space.
  11. To promote anonymous review, authors should not identify themselves directly or indirectly in their papers or in experimental test instruments included in the submission. Single authors should not use the editorial “we”.
  12. A cover page should show the title of the paper, all authors’ names, titles and affiliations, as well as email addresses.

  Pagination: All pages, including tables, appendices, and references, should be serially numbered. Major sections should be numbered in Roman numerals. Subsections should not be numbered.

  Numbers: Spell out numbers from one to ten, except when used in tables and lists, and when used with mathematical, statistical, scientific, or technical units and quantities, such as distances, weights, and measures.

  Percentage and Decimal Fractions: In nontechnical copy, use the word percent in the text.

  Hyphens: Use a hyphen to join unit modifiers or to clarify usage. For example: a cross-sectional-equation; re-form. See Webster’s for correct usage.

  Keywords: The abstract must be followed by at least five keywords to assist in indexing the paper and identifying qualified reviewers.

  Data Availability: A line immediately following the Keyword identifiers should indicate whether the data are available.

  Abstract/ Introduction.  An abstract of about 200 words should be presented on a separate page immediately preceding the text. The Abstract should concisely inform the reader of the manuscript’s topic, its methods, and its findings. Keywords and the Data Availability statements should follow the Abstract. The text of the paper should start with a section labeled “Introduction,” which provides more details about the paper’s purpose, motivation, methodology, and findings. Both the Abstract and the Introduction should be relatively nontechnical yet clear enough for an informed reader to understand the manuscript’s contribution. The manuscript’s title but neither the author’s name nor other identification designations should appear on the Abstract page.


Citations: In-text citations are made using an author-year format. Cited works must correspond to the list of works listed in the “Literature Cited” section.

  1. In the text, works are cited as follows: author’s last name and year, without a comma, in parentheses.
  2. For cited works that include more than one work by an author (or same co – authors) that is published in the same year, the suffix a, b, etc., is to follow the date in the within-text citations and in the “Literature Cited” section.
  3. When the author’s name is mentioned in the text, it need not be repeated in the citation.
  4. Citations to institutional works should use acronyms or short titles where practicable.
  5. If the paper refers to statutes, legal treatises, or court cases, citations acceptable in law reviews should be used.

Conclusions.  Conclusions should briefly answer the objectives of the study. They are not repetitions of the discussions but are judgments of the results obtained.

References.  Every manuscript must include a “References” section that contains only those works cited within the text. Each entry should contain all information necessary or unambiguous identification of the published work.

Journal Description

Development Education Journal

of Multidisciplinary Research

The Development Education Journal of Multidisciplinary Research is published twice annually by La Consolacion College Bacolod, Bacolod City, Philippines.

Send inquiries to:

The Development Education Journal (DEJ) of Multidisciplinary Research is published by La Consolacion College Bacolod in the Philippines. DEJ is open to the community of scholars who wish to have their original research articles in a peer-reviewed journal. The content of the journal covers an array of disciplines from education, natural sciences, social sciences, humanities, business, technology and other fields which are contributory to human wellbeing and societal development.

The editorial policy is published in this issue and can be accessed through the LCC Bacolod website and Inquiries can be sent via email at

All papers undergo double-blind review. The Editorial Board makes the final decision on the acceptability of a manuscript after reviewing the compliance of the researcher to the instructions of the peer reviewers.

Online Selection: As for back issues, the Development Education Journal of Multidisciplinary Research is available at

LCCB Vision-Mission Statements

La Consolacion College shall be a leading catholic university committed to excellent life-long learning.

La Consolacion College commits to provide transformative education and to instill in all the members of the community of friends the passion for peace justice and integrity of creation.


Graduate Programs:
Master in Business Administration
Master in Business Administration major in
      Human Resource Management, Management Accounting
Master of Arts in Education major in
      English/Literature, Filipino, General Science, Instructional Technology, Religious Studies,
      Physical Education and Sports
Master in Educational Management

Baccalaureate Programs:
      Bachelor of Science in Business Administration major in
            Human Resource Management, Marketing Management
      Bachelor of Science in Information Technology
      Bachelor of Science in Accounting Technology
      Bachelor of Elementary Education
      Bachelor of Secondary Education major in
            English, Filipino, General Science, Mathematics
      Bachelor of Arts in English/Literature
      Bachelor Library and Information Science
      Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management
      Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management
      Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management
            major in Commercial Cookery
      Bachelor of Science in Architecture
      Bachelor of Fine Arts major in
            Advertising, Industrial Design, Painting, Digital Media Arts
      Bachelor of Science in Interior Design

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *